Wednesday, May 16, 2007

Digression on the Cause of Gravity

It may be interesting to speculate at this point what may be causing this phenomenon of gravity. We are certainly in a better position than before when we had only one Newtonian gravity to find out the cause of it behind all these cosmological phenomena because the two examples will tell something about the nature of it much clearer like a detective trying to figure out a case with the same finger printings on two different incidents for the case under investigation would have much better chance to solve it.

The nature of the dipole gravity force is peculiar in the sense that it critically depends on the bulk geometrical shape of the object. This aspect was not clear from the example of Newtonian gravity since the monopole gravity is not sensitive to the geometrical shape of the object at all. Also all the elementary particles are assumed to have the same geometrical shape like a sphere.
This peculiar aspect of dipole gravity makes one wonder if quantisation of gravity is the right way to understand gravity because gravity looks like more of a bulk phenomenon than the quantum phenomenon.

So, the findings that the rotational motion creates the longitudinally asymmetric gravitational field around the rotating object like a hemisphere, cone etc may provide some additional clues.

In effect, the asymmetrical rotor must be acting like a propeller, but in what way?

Let's assume for the sake of argument that the universe is filled with tachyonic neutrinos. I published the paper titled "Neutrinos must be Tachyons" in the llnl archive which has a very good empirical evidence that it must be the case ( One should read it to see how strong the case is for it. It must be realized that there are as many neutrinos as the number of electrons and protons in the universe because the weak decay produces one in each and every cases of its interactions.

What people have not been asking is "where have those astronomical number of the neutrinos gone?" There are too many of them and the elementary particles don't simply disappear, yet, no one seems to be bothered by their apparent absence from our daily perspective of the universe.

If they are not tachyonic, they must be hanging around some part of the universe gravitating to form some kind of observable macroscopic object, which has never been found. If neutrinos are tachyonic, the case for which is very strong at the moment, they must be traveling inside of our universe incessantly. So, it is quite probable that the universe is filled with tachyonic gas like the atomic molecular gas filled up inside a balloon which may be composed of many different kinds of neutrinos if not one. After all, these tachyonic gas may form the aether itself that the light uses it as a medium to propagate like the sound wave propagates through the pressurized air filled earth surface. When Michelson and Morley performed their experiments, their major assumption was to find the solid or materialistic form of the aether not like the superluminal kind we are talking about. The aether drag effect Michelson and Morley expected to find will not exist if the aether was formed by superluminal object like tachyonic neutrinos. Furthermore, to reinforce this proposition, neutrinos are not totally immune from the light particles since they are related to each other by the electro-weak interactions. Photons and neutrinos are family members within the framework of electro-weak theory. So like in the case of the sound wave propagating through the air molecules, the compression and the relaxation of the local density of the tachyonic neutrinos generates the ripple effect to carry the light through the long distances.

The neutrinos rarely if ever interact with matters. At least that's what has been understood regarding neutrinos. However, this statement may not be entirely correct. Most of the metals and rocks are free to pass for neutrinos. However, there can be substantial kinematic non zero cross sections with baryonic matters when they are densely populated inside to form a star. The purely kinematic interaction like elastic head on collision will not produce the high energy producing strong interaction effect. So, there is really no way of knowing how the low energy neutrinos are interacting with ordinary matters. But such an elastic interaction can be expected to exist and it could be much more frequent and common than one would expect. It's basically like two billiard balls of different size collide and then bounce off from each other. The total energy and the momentum is conserved in this process, ie, the sum of the initial momentum and the energy must be the same as the final sum of the momentum and energy. Besides most of the neutrinos do not have high energy to begin with. The energy equation dictates that the lesser energy the tachyonic particle has, the faster they travel while still satisfying the Lorentz invariance. They behave in a totally different manner compared to the usual matter particles. They are not observable beside the fact that they interact kinematically with baryonic matter inside the dense stars or by the high energy neutrinos generated from the super nova interacting with the baryonic matter in the laboratory experiment.

Therefore, in a way, the core of the dense star forms a "aether vacuum" meaning that there is less and less chance for the tachyonic neutrinos can penetrate into the core of the dense stars. The strength of the aether vacuum depends on the elastic collision cross section and the number density of the tachyonic neutrinos and the average speed of them which will determine the mean relaxation time and also the characteristics of the dense object itself which will be the measure of its own density and also its volume.

So, the gravitational constant G becomes a function of those three physical quantities, ie, the number density, the average speed and the elastic collision cross section of the tachyonic aether particles with the matter.

So, here is the fundamental proposition,

The gravity is caused by the "Tachyonic Neutrino's Aether Vacuum".

Now let's see if this proposition can be consistent with dipole gravity. The rotation of the longitudinally asymmetric object creates asymmetric ether vacuum along the rotation axis, because the larger diameter side has more chance to knock off the tachyonic neutrinos due to its faster tangential velocity thereby creating the higher ether vacuum state compared to the other side where the tip of the dome or the pointed edge of the cone is located while in rotation. So there is a gradient of tachyonic vacuum pressure formed along the longitudinal direction of the asymmetric rotating object.

The lower pressure side is where matters tend to move toward and it becomes the center of gravitation. It is basically the same concept like the air plane propeller except that the tachyonic aether can not be pushed or moved by the blade of the propeller but only by the fast rotating motion of the dense object (until one can find the alternatives which will become the core of the engineering the tachyonic aether in the future).

This is also consistent with the fact that the rotating cylinder does not create dipole gravity.

The inertial effect is caused by the tachyonic neutrino's balancing act to position the object in place from all directions while trying to give it a net momentum. Of course the centrifugal force is a natural consequence of this inertial tendency of the matter in the universe. It doesn't have to require the existence of all the matters in the universe at least in a direct way. However in the process of the creation of all the matters in the universe, there must have been the same number of neutrinos generated as the number of protons in the universe which have become the part of the aether. So, there is certainly a remote relation but not in such a direct way as Mach described.

It also indicates that the empty space is pretty well balanced which means the universe is homogeneous and isotropic in terms of tachyonic neutrino's population and its density. And their fast balancing act is not hard to understand considering their immense speed of travel in the universe.

The Gaussian flux concept of the gravity force line is also consistent with this concept of the tachyonic aether vacuum because of the isotropic presence of the tachyonic neutrinos and their motions. The fundamental law of kinetic theory of gas is that the nature abhors vacuum. It must be filled up and equalize the pressure all over the space and that is also the fundamental reason for all kinds of weather phenomenon on earth.

So, in a sense, cosmology is a weather phenomenon caused by the movement of the tachyonic neutrino gas in the universe. The fast rotating black hole pushes and pulls the tachyonic gas and it produces the jets because of the imbalance and the peculiar formation of the tachyonic gas pressure in the surrounding area of the rotating galactic centers.

It's like each particles are the actors in the theater of the immense universe. They act in such a way their characters are assigned like in the Shakespearean play. Tachyonic particles have to play their role as much as baryonic matter particles play their roles.

The reason for the unusual weakness of the gravitational interaction compared to other interactions may be attributed to the fact that the kinematic elastic collision cross section of the tachyonic neutrinos with the matter particles is extremely small compared to other interactions.

The Cause of the Flat Rotational Velocity Curves

The fundamental mystery in the dark matter problem is in the flat rotation curve as the distance becomes large from the galactic center.

{courtesy from Dr. Greg Bothun}

Within the framework of the usual dark matter halo hypothesis, if the density of the halo is assumed to be constant, it will not generate the logarithmic potential which is necessary to address the flat rotation curve. If one wants to make up an arbitrary density function to make it fit the rotation curve, one has to explain how the distribution has come about that way. However, if the dark matter halo is made of the continuous cycling flux of the matter ejected by the jets, as predicted by the theory of dipole gravity, the volume density of the dark matter halo will not be constant, instead the flux density will be a constant, because it has the definite source located at the center of the rotating galaxy. The effective gravity potential produced by the dark matter halo can be expressed by

in general form, where ρ(r) represents the density function of the dark matter halo. Since the source of the dark matter halo is coming directly from the jets from the rotating galactic center, the total mass of the matter particles populated within the volume defined by 4 π r^2 times the unit length of r will be the same until the density of the halo diminishes to zero. So, the effective gravity potential within the applicable regime becomes

where M is the sum of the total mass within the volume element 4 π r^2 times the unit length of r. The logarithmic gravitational potential is the typical signature for the flat rotation curve.

The gravitational force within the relatively short distance from the center of the rotating galaxy is dominated by the strong dipole gravity force

as derived previously, which explains the sharply increasing slope in the rotation curve near the galactic center.

In his prophetic statement, Dr. Greg Bothun writes, quote

"However, it's important to realize that the "dark matter" problem exists only in the context of one known long range force (gravity). Suppose there is another long range force that we are ignorant of. If this is discovered by future physicists then they will look back at this "dark matter" cosmology much the same way we now view the early "geocentric" cosmologies."

How Lense-Thirring force is derived from dipole gravity?

Einstein's Triumphant Legacy

Although Einstein didn't live long enough to see the key solution to his own theory of gravity, dipole gravity is certainly a result of special relativity and the equivalence principle which are the fundamental building blocks of general relativity. The equivalence principle predicts that when there is an acceleration of mass, it must generate gravitational effect associated with it. And the object in rotational motion in mechanics is basically in a state of continuous acceleration in the sense that the motion requires the continuous change of the directions of the mass element within the rotating body.

But it was not clear in regard to how that works, in what way and through what kind of mechanism to cause a realistic gravitational field.

The analogy with electro-magnetism certainly failed. Rotating donut shaped object didn't create gravito magnet. Lens-Thirring's force from the rotating spherical shell indicated there is a remnant of the acceleration of the mass induced force near the center of the sphere but the interpretation and the sign of the force were incorrect. The radial component of the force was interpreted as the centrifugal force in accordance with Mach's principle and there was no explanation for the harmonic force along the axis of the rotation. And none of these forces seemed to give any clues to the existing cosmological problems. And it didn't encourage any further investigation into the subject largely because of the horrendous difficulties in analytically calculating all the details of the gravity effect from the circular motion of the spherical object. And the dipole term from the linearized theory was simply interpreted as meaningless and it was declared that there is no such thing as dipole gravitational moment as a physically meaningful entity.

Thus, the question remained a fundamental mystery of general relativity. How the circular motion of the mass manifests itself into a verifiable gravito magnetism?

Even if the rotating frequency and the tangential velocity of the object may be considered crucial to the effect, it was not obvious how it should be incorporated into the final form of the gravito magnetism. The most crucial and final stumbling block may have been Newtonian mechanics itself since there is no such thing as the shift of the center of mass by a fixed definite quantity depending on the speed of the rotational motion in Newtonian mechanics. It simply won't happen. Of course, this can be used to perfectly justify the claim of the non existence of the gravitational dipole moment if and only if one assumes that Newtonian mechanics is the flawless and complete theory of the mechanical universe.

Dipole gravity(gravito magnetism) is a plain and inevitable solution to general relativity that has been sought but eluded the researchers in the field for a long time. Clearly it was not obvious to Einstein himself. But there is no doubt that it is still one of his most triumphant legacies.

He would have been very happy to see the solution of his own theory explaining the mysteries of the universe ranging from the jet phenomena to the dark matter problems which did not emerge as the prominent cosmological problems at his time.

We can learn here the pattern regarding on how the old and new principles of physics exchange and compete to evolve into a new principle to teach us something new. When there is a new principle which is larger and incorporating the old principle, there is a crucial and unique mechanism that shows the clear conflict between the old and new principle at which point one is forced to choose one and thereby face the demands of the modification of the old principle to make it compatible to the new one.

In any circumstances, the final result is that it forces us to abandon certain features of the old principle. This happens in a continuous fashion in the history of mankind and that is how the secret of the nature is continuously made comprehensible.