Thursday, February 14, 2008

Dark Energy

Since the theory of dipole gravity has hinted that the gravity in general is a bulk effect rather than a quantum effect, the presence of the superluminal tachyonic particles in the background of the universe becomes a strongly favored concept.
One of the candidates of these particles are neutrinos which has been enforced by the fact that the measured mass squared value of the neutrinos has consistently been reported to be negative.

If neutrinos are also magnetic monopoles, the symmetry of EM is restored where the symmetry has been known to be broken by the fact that there is no isolated magnetic monopole detected in the universe. The concept is also strengthened by the fact that the electrons and antineutrinos are produced hand in hand when the neutrons are broken to pieces by beta decay.

The following consequence of this scenario is that the tachyonic magnetic monopoles, while traveling faster than the speed of light, will still exert forces among themselves in such a way that a certain part of the space is no more crowded than the other part of the universe. The net effect is the ever growing expansion of the universe.

The total energy content may be calculated by the number density of the tachyonic neutrinos in a volume of a cubic centimeter and the energy due to their mutual repulsive magnetic forces.

There can be questions on why there are more of the antineutrinos than the neutrinos in the universe. Where is this asymmetry coming from? It is possible that we are living in the universe where the configuration of the proton, electron, and the antineutrinos are predominant as the way we observe it, while there can be other universe right next to ours that is totally opposite of what we have. The universe next to us may have the negatively charged nucleus and the positrons orbiting the nuclei with the abundant neutrinos instead of the antineutrinos in its background of the universe.

Physicists like to look for symmetry, whenever there is a lack of symmetry in nature; we are suspicious of it and wonder why. Of course, dipole gravity was a part of an answer to such a quest because the rotating hemisphere breaks the symmetry of the center of mass from that of a rotating sphere by its anomalous relativistic shift.

I'm sure the superstring theorists are also in the same shoes in looking for the answer for the ultimate symmetry of the nature.

Tuesday, February 12, 2008

Accretion Disc

Within the Newtonian gravity only, it is hard to explain how the matter falls into the galactic nuclei without losing its angular momentum first. To explain this problem without invoking the additional long range gravity force, one has to introduce the friction and the hydrodynamic fluid equation as well as the concept of the plunge radius within which one has to assume that the matter falls into the nuclei without having the persistent rotational motion. In fact, the angular momentum is such a well conserved quantity that it is hard to get rid of it without a proper cause.

If we have an additional long range gravity force that depends on the function of 1/r^4 in the radial direction, the Virial theorem can not hold and the matter circling around the nuclei will not conserve the angular momentum and the orbit is not going to be closed.

The orbit of the matter circling around the galactic core with the additional long range dipole gravity force will become smaller and smaller with the increasing velocity until it plunges into the nuclei with a violent collision which may be the major cause of the observed gamma ray bursts. This also implies that the accretion debris is neither in a purely ionized plasma nor in the gaseous states.

By this way, the necessity of finding an alternative way to lose the angular momentum is totally unnecessary, let alone the assumption of the existence of the plunge radius. As discussed in the page black hole jet engine, the dipole gravity potential with its latitude angular dependency explains the mechanism on how the matter prefers to stay in the thin disk shaped region in the equatorial plane as well.

It is fundamentally caused by the lower dipole gravity potential formed around the equatorial plane due to the latitude angular dependency of the force. The heat of the material falling into the nuclei is caused by the continuous compressing force of dipole gravity toward the core of the galaxy, which is manifested by the attractive harmonic force of the (sign corrected) Lense-Thirring force at the center.

Within the entire picture of the spiral galaxies, the accretion disc is an integral part of the jets and the dark matter problem when dipole gravity is invoked for its explanation.